If all of the 300 million people were simply one village of 100 people, its diversity is easier to understand. That's just what the author has done to make the complex make-up of the . residents (in terms of languages spoken, ages, and more). Colorful illustrations accompany the understandable text. Additional resources complete the book. If the World Were a Village: A Book About the World’s People , also by Smith, looks at the inhabitants of the world as a village to allow its diversity to become more understandable for adults and children.
The formula for the standard deviation is the one given on the webpage http://-/descriptive-statistics/measures-variability/ . Or you can use the Excel formula STDEV as usual. In the case of the paired t test you calculate the standard deviation on the difference between the data values for the two samples (as shown in Figure 2 of http://-/students-t-distribution/paired-sample-t-test/ ). The standard error is then this value divided by the square root of the sample size, as explained right after Figure 2.
If you download the Real Statistics Examples Workbook you can access the spreadsheets for all the examples on the website. From these spreadsheets you can see how all the calculations are done.
In participant observation, the researcher intervenes in the environment. Most commonly, this refers to inserting himself/herself as a member of a group, aimed at observing behavior that otherwise would not be accessible. Also, behaviors remain relatively natural, thereby giving the measurements high external validity. Case Studies are a type of observational research that involve a thorough descriptive analysis of a single individual, group, or event. They can be designed along the lines of both nonparticipant and participant observation. Both approaches create new data, while archival research involves the analysis of data that already exist. A hypothesis is generated and then tested by analyzing data that have already been collected. This is a useful approach when one has access to large amounts of information collected over long periods of time. Such databases are available, for example, in longitudinal research that collects information from the same individuals over many years.
Special qualitative analysis software tools like help the researcher to catalog, penetrate and analyze the data generated (or, in archival research found) in a given research project. All forms of observational or field research benefit extensively from the special capabilities of a dedicated data anlaysis tool like .